The Effect of Heavy Metal Concentration on the Soil of Odagbo Area, Kogi State Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Nigeria


The study is aimed at evaluating the effect of coal mining on the soil of Odagbo area, Kogi State, Nigeria. Twenty-eight (28) soil samples were collected each in the wet and dry seasons where twenty-one of the samples were from a mining site while seven samples were from the control site at depths of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m respectively. The heavy metal concentration of the samples were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Standard pollution indices such as I-geo and Pollution Indices were deployed to assess the level of heavy metal contamination in the soil. The result showed the order of dominance of the heavy metals monitored as Fe>Ni>Zn>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Co. The mean concentration levels of all the heavy metals were lower than mean background values except Cu and Fe during the dry season. The results of the study revealed that the soil of the Odagbo is polluted by all the tested heavy metals based on the calculated PI and I-geo for the heavy metals. The PI was mostly 1≤ PI ≤ 2(moderate pollution) for all the depths except for the elevated case of copper thus indicating practically low to moderate contamination. The I-geo was mostly less than 0 at all the depths except for the elevated cases of copper, iron and zinc during the dry season and Copper and Iron during the wet season thus indicating uncontaminated condition. In conclusion, the data obtained from the study demonstrated that the distribution of metal concentration in the study area when compared to the control site was largely influenced by anthropogenic activities particular from the coal mining site.


Main Subjects

[1]      Adekunle I, Adetunji M, Gbadebo A, Banjoko O. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2007;4:307–18. doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040007.
[2]      Yahaya M, Mohammad S, Abdullahi B. Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentration in Abattoir Dumping Site Soil in Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 2010;13. doi:10.4314/jasem.v13i4.55387.
[3]      Ekwule OR, Akpen GD, Ugbede GM. The Effect of Coal Mining on the Water Quality of Water Sources in Nigeria. Bartın Univ Int J Nat Appl Sci n.d.;2:251–60.
[4]      Olatunji OS, Osibanjo O. Baseline studies of some heavy metals in top soils around the iron-ore mining field Itakpe North Central Nigeria. Int J Min Eng Miner Process 2012.
[5]      Iwegbue CMA, Egobueze FE, Opuene K. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals levels of soils of an oil field in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Int J Environ Sci Technol 2006;3:167–72.
[6]      Adriano D. Trace metals in terrestrial environment. Biochemistry, bioavailability and risk of metals. Springer-Verlag, New York 2001.
[7]      Kang Y, Liu G, Chou C-L, Wong MH, Zheng L, Ding R. Arsenic in Chinese coals: Distribution, modes of occurrence, and environmental effects. Sci Total Environ 2011;412–413:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.026.
[8]      Dai S, Zeng R, Sun Y. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium in a Late Permian anthracite from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China. Int J Coal Geol 2006;66:217–26. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2005.09.001.
[9]      Dai S, Ren D, Tang Y, Yue M, Hao L. Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China. Int J Coal Geol 2005;61:119–37. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.07.003.
[10]    Altun AO, Yilmaz I, Yildirim M. A short review on the surficial impacts of underground mining. Sci Res Essays 2010;5:3206–12.
[11]     Olatunde KA, Sosanya PA, Bada BS, Ojekunle ZO, Abdussalaam SA. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils around a major cement factory, Ibese, Nigeria. Sci African 2020;9:e00496. doi:10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00496.
[12]    De Swardt AMJ, Casey OP. The coal resources of Nigeria: Geological Survey of Nigeria Bulletin 1961.
[13]    Federal Department of Agricultural Land Resources. The Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Nigeria, ISRIC Library, Waganiagen Netherlands 1990; 1: 1-44 n.d.
[14]    Nwajiuba CU. Coal mining and livelihood systems in a rural agrarian community: a study of Ankpa LGA in Kogi State, Nigeria. Niger Agric J 2005;36:13–25.
[15]    Chukwu M, Folayan CO, Pam GY, Obada DO. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation. J Combust 2016;2016:1–11. doi:10.1155/2016/9728278.
[16]    Tsafe AI, Hassan LG, Sahabi DM, Alhassan Y, Bala BM. Evaluation of heavy metals uptake and risk assessment of vegetables grown in Yargalma of Northern Nigeria. J Basic Appl Sci Res 2012;2:6708–14.
[17]    Ajah KC, Ademiluyi J, Nnaji CC. Spatiality, seasonality and ecological risks of heavy metals in the vicinity of a degenerate municipal central dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria. J Environ Heal Sci Eng 2015;13:15. doi:10.1186/s40201-015-0168-0.
[18]    Saleem M, Iqbal J, Shah MH. Geochemical speciation, anthropogenic contamination, risk assessment and source identification of selected metals in freshwater sediments—A case study from Mangla Lake, Pakistan. Environ Nanotechnology, Monit Manag 2015;4:27–36. doi:10.1016/j.enmm.2015.02.002.
[19]    Ibe FC, Opara AI, Ibe BO. Application of pollution risk evaluation models in groundwater systems in the vicinity of automobile scrap markets in Owerri municipal and environs, southeastern Nigeria. Sci African 2020;8:e00450. doi:10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00450.
[20]    Kaur R, Sharma S, Kaur H. Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. J Pharmacogn Phytochem SP1 2019:247–9.
[21]    Akan JC, Audu SI, Mohammed, Audu Z, Ogugbuaja VO. Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. J Environ Prot (Irvine, Calif) 2013;04:618–28. doi:10.4236/jep.2013.46071.
[22]    Singh J, Kalamdhad AS. Effects of heavy metals on soil, plants, human health and aquatic life. Int J Res Chem Environ 2011;1:15–21.
[23]    Akpoveta O, Osakwe S, Okoh B, Otuya B. Physicochemical Characteristics and Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Soils around Metal Scrap Dumps in Some Parts of Delta State, Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 2011;14. doi:10.4314/jasem.v14i4.63258.
[24]    Mmolawa KB, Likuku AS, Gaboutloeloe GK. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside areas in Botswana. African J Environ Sci Technol 2011;5:186–96.
[25]    Baba AA, Adekola FA, Lawal A. Trace metals concentration in roadside dusts of Ilorin Town. Centrepoint (Science Ed 2009;16:57–64.
[26]    Salmamanzadeh M, Saeedi M, Nabibidhendi G. Heavy metals pollution in street dusts of Tehran and their ecological risk. J Env Stud 2012;38:4–6.
[27]    Wuana RA, Okieimen FE. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. Int Sch Res Not 2011;2011.
[28]    Chiroma TM, Ebewele RO, Hymore FK. Comparative assessment of heavy metal levels in soil, vegetables and urban grey waste water used for irrigation in Yola and Kano. Int Ref J Eng Sci 2014;3:1–9.