Modelling of the Compressive Strength of Palm-Nut-Fibre Concrete Using Scheffe’s Theory

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B. 7267, Umuahia 440109, Abia State, Nigeria


In this research study, a mathematical model is developed to optimize the palm-nut-fiber reinforced concrete’s compressive strength using Scheffe's (5, 2) simplex-lattice design. Palm-nut-fiber which is an agricultural residue obtained after the processing of palm-oil is utilized as the fifth component in concrete consisting of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates. Fibers are used to help fresh concrete to keep it from cracking and plastic shrinkage and also for a concrete structure of complicated or complex geometry where the use of the conventional rebar will not work. The compressive strength of Palm-nut-fiber were obtained for the different componential ratios using Scheffe’s Simplex method and for the control points which will be utilized for the validation of the Scheffe’s model. The model’s adequacy was tested using student’s t-test and ANOVA at 5% critical value. The statistical result indicates a good relationship between the values obtained from the developed Scheffe’s model and the control laboratory results. The maximum value of compressive strength of the palm-nut fiber concrete obtained was 31.53Nmm2 corresponding to mix ratio of 0.525:1.0:1.45:1.75:0.6 and minimum value of compressive strength obtained was found to be 17.25Nmm2 corresponding to mix ratio of 0.6:1.0:1.8:2.5:1.2. For water, Limestone Portland cement (LPC), fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and palm nut fiber respectively. Using the developed Scheffe’s simplex model, the proportion of the mixture ingredients to a certain prescribed compressive strength value can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy and also providing the solution in less amount of time.


Google Scholar


Main Subjects

[1]       Okere CE, Onwuka DO, Onwuka SU, Arimanwa JI. Simplex-based concrete mix design. IOSR J Mech Civ Eng 2013;5:46–55.
[2]       Awwad E, Mabsout M, Hamad B, Khatib H. Preliminary studies on the use of natural fibers in sustainable concrete. Leban Sci J 2011;12:109–17.
[3]       Yalley PP, Kwan ASK. Use of coconut fibre as an enhancement of concrete. J Eng Technol 2009;3:54–73.
[4]     Vajje S, Krishna NR. Study on addition of the natural fibers into concrete. Int J Sci Technol Res 2013;2:213–8.
[5]       Islam SM, Hussain RR, Morshed MAZ. Fiber-reinforced concrete incorporating locally available natural fibers in normal- and high-strength concrete and a performance analysis with steel fiber-reinforced composite concrete. J Compos Mater 2012;46:111–22. doi:10.1177/0021998311410492.
[6]       Orie OU, Osadebe NN. Optimization of the compressive strength of five-component-concrete mix using Scheffe’s theory–a case study of mound soil concrete. J Niger Assoc Math Phys 2009;14:81–92.
[7]       Onuamah PN. Optimized compressive strength modeling of mixed aggregate in solid sandcrete production. Int J Comput Eng Res 2015;5:39–52.
[8]       Scheffé H. Experiments with Mixtures. J R Stat Soc Ser B 1958;20:344–60. doi:10.1111/j.2517-6161.1958.tb00299.x.
[9]       Ezeh JC, Ibearuegbulem OM, Anyaogu L. Optimization of Compressive Strength of Cement-Sawdust Ash Sandcrete Block Using Scheffe’s Mathematical Model. Int J Eng 2010;4:487–94.
[10]     Onyelowe K, Alaneme G, Igboayaka C, Orji F, Ugwuanyi H, Bui Van D, et al. Scheffe optimization of swelling, California bearing ratio, compressive strength, and durability potentials of quarry dust stabilized soft clay soil. Mater Sci Energy Technol 2019;2:67–77. doi:10.1016/j.mset.2018.10.005.
[11]     Okere CE, Osadebe NN, Onwuka DO. Prediction of flexural strength of soilcrete blocks using Scheffe’s simplex lattice design. Int J Comput Sci Eng 2014;2:52–60.
[12]     Alaneme George U, Mbadike Elvis M. Optimization of flexural strength of palm nut fibre concrete using Scheffe’s theory. Mater Sci Energy Technol 2019;2:272–87. doi:10.1016/j.mset.2019.01.006.
[13]     Chiemela C, Okoye PC, Nwosu PC, Oke OM, Ohakwe CN. Optimization of concrete made with abakaliki quarry dust as fine aggregate using Scheffe’s optimization Model. Int Lett Nat Sci 2014;15.
[14]     Rai A, Joshi YP. Applications and properties of fibre reinforced concrete. J Eng Res Appl 2014;4:123–31.
[15]     Myers RH, Montgomery DC, Anderson-Cook CM. Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. John Wiley & Sons; 2016.
[16]     Okafor FO, Oguaghamba OA. Procedure for optimization using Scheffe’s models. J Eng Sci Appl 2009;7:36–47.
[17]     Akhnazorova S, Katarao V. Design of Experiments – Part II. Exp Optim Chem Chem Eng Moscow, Mir Publ 1982:150– 309.
[18]     Standard B. Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. London BSI 1992:1–9.
[19]     British Standards Institution, BS EN 1008:2000. Mixing water for concrete – Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete. n.d.