A Moving Cohesive Mesh Formulation to Predict Debonding Phenomena in Layered Structures

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 39B, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

Abstract

A new numerical formulation, which combines the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) approach with the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology to investigate the crack onset and evolution of multilayer composite beams is presented. The CZM approach is used to calculate the main variables, which governs the conditions of onset and propagations of delamination, whereas the ALE formulation is employed to simulate the evolution of the crack growth. In spite of numerical methodologies based on pure CZM, the proposed formulation guarantees lower computational efforts since a reduced number of finite elements is required to reproduce delamination mechanisms. Moreover, the proposed model is able to introduce the nonlinearity only in a small region around the crack tip, whereas in the remaining one, linear equations to simulate perfect adhesion are introduced. In order to verify the accuracy and to validate the proposed formulations, comparisons with existing formulations available in literature are proposed. Moreover, a parametric study to evaluate the delamination phenomena in dynamic and the contributions arising from through-thickness reinforcements, such as Z-pin elements, is performed.

Highlights

Google Scholar

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]     A. Manalo, et al., State-of-the-Art Review on FRP Sandwich Systems for Lightweight Civil Infrastructure. Journal of Composites for Construction, 2017. 21(1).
[2]     L. Ascione, et al., Macro-scale analysis of local and global buckling behavior of T and C composite sections. Mechanics Research Communications, 2014. 58: p. 105-111.
[3]     L. Ascione, et al., Pre-buckling imperfection sensitivity of pultruded FRP profiles. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2015. 72: p. 206-212.
[4]     E.J. Barbero, Introduction to Composite Materials Design, 1999.
[5]     G. Morada, A. Vadean, and R. Boukhili, Failure mechanisms of a sandwich beam with an ATH/epoxy core under static and dynamic three-point bending. Composite Structures, 2017. 176: p. 281-293.
[6]     M. Alfano, et al., Mode I fracture of adhesive joints using tailored cohesive zone models. International Journal of Fracture, 2009. 157(1-2): p. 193-204.
[7]     M.F. Funari and P. Lonetti, Initiation and evolution of debonding phenomena in layered structures. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 2017. 92: p. 133-145.
[8]     S. Mostovoy and E.J. Ripling, Effect of joint geometry on the toughness of epoxy adhesives. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1971. 15(3): p. 661-673.
[9]     T.L. Anderson, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, Fourth Edition. 2017: CRC Press.
[10]   Q. Yang and B. Cox, Cohesive models for damage evolution in laminated composites. International Journal of Fracture, 2005. 133(2): p. 107-137.
[11]   G.I. Barenblatt, The Mathematical Theory of Equilibrium Cracks in Brittle Fracture, in Advances in Applied Mechanics. 1962. p. 55-129.
[12]   D.S. Dugdale, Yielding of steel sheets containing slits. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 1960. 8(2): p. 100-104.
[13]   D. Bruno, F. Greco, and P. Lonetti, Dynamic mode i and mode II crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 2009. 16(6): p. 442-445.
[14]   F. Greco and P. Lonetti, Mixed mode dynamic delamination in fiber reinforced composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2009. 40(5): p. 379-392.
[15]   P. Lonetti, Dynamic propagation phenomena of multiple delaminations in composite structures. Computational Materials Science, 2010. 48(3): p. 563-575.
[16]   M.F. Funari, F. Greco, and P. Lonetti, A moving interface finite element formulation for layered structures. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2016. 96: p. 325-337.
[17]   M.F. Funari, F. Greco, and P. Lonetti, Dynamic debonding in layered structures: A coupled ALE-cohesive approach. Frattura ed Integrita Strutturale, 2017. 11(41): p. 524-535.
[18]   M.F. Funari, et al., An interface approach based on moving mesh and cohesive modeling in Z-pinned composite laminates. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2018. 135: p. 207-217.
[19]   COMSOL Multiphysics 2014.
[20]   L. Zhao, et al., XFEM simulation of delamination in composite laminates. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2016. 80: p. 61-71.
[21]   J.R. Reeder, K. Demarco, and K.S. Whitley, The use of doubler reinforcement in delamination toughness testing. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2004. 35(11): p. 1337-1344.
[22]   C. Lundsgaard-Larsen, R. Massabò, and B.N. Cox, On acquiring data for large-scale crack bridging at high strain rates. Journal of Composite Materials, 2012. 46(8): p. 949-971.
[23]   H. Cui, et al., Mixed mode cohesive law for Z-pinned composite analyses. Computational Materials Science, 2013. 75: p. 60-68.
[24]   M.F. Funari, F. Greco, and P. Lonetti, A cohesive finite element model based ALE formulation for z-pins reinforced multilayered composite beams. Procedia Structural Integrity, 2016. 2: p. 452-459.
[25]   F. Bianchi and X. Zhang, A cohesive zone model for predicting delamination suppression in z-pinned laminates. Composites Science and Technology, 2011. 71(16): p. 1898-1907.
[26]   D.D.R. Cartié, Effect of z-fibres on the delamination behaviour of carbon fibre I epoxy laminates [PhD Thesis]. 2000.