Characteristic Properties of Concrete with Recycled Burnt Bricks as Coarse Aggregates Replacement

Document Type : Original Article


1 Civil Works Department, Ringo Star Ventures LTD, 34 Panama Street, Ministers Hill, Maitama

2 Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi


To counter the depletion of river sand and to reduce the menace caused by disposal of crushed brick wastes, the use of crushed bricks to produce a more environmentally sustainable and economical concrete is explored. This project studied the properties of concrete made using crushed burnt bricks as an aggregate in comparison with concrete made using natural coarse aggregates. Experimental investigation was carried on the concrete in its wet and dry state to determine the durability and mechanical properties of the concrete by testing the workability, water absorption, density and compressive strength test of the concrete. The result of the water absorption test shows that concretes made using crushed burnt bricks as coarse aggregates absorbed more water with value of 7.83% than conventional concrete with value of 2.83% at 28 days curing. The strength test result carried out indicates that conventional concrete at 28 days has strength of 22.96 N/mm2 higher than that of concretes made using crushed burnt bricks at 28 days of curing with value of 15.45 N/mm2, however, the strength of concretes from crushed burnt bricks still lies within the acceptable limit. Other test carried out on the crushed burnt aggregates to ascertain their suitability were, Aggregates Impact Value test (AIV) with value at 15.68% and Aggregates Crushing Value test (ACV) with value at 23.36%. The properties and quality of the crushed burnt bricks aggregates were also determined.


Google Scholar


Main Subjects

[1]     Chen H-J, Yen T, Chen K-H. Use of building rubbles as recycled aggregates. Cem Concr Res 2003;33:125–32. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00938-9.
[2]     Broviak P. Managing C&D Debris. Public Works 2005;136:29–31.
[3]     Scoping study to investigate measures for improving the environmental sustainability of building materials. Centre for Design at RMIT University, Melbourne in association with BIS, Shrapnel, CSIRO, Deni Greene Consulting Services, Syneca Consulting 2006:271.
[4]     Crowther P. Building deconstruction in Australia. Overv Deconstruction Sel Ctries 2000:14–44.
[5]     Formoso CT, Soibelman L, De Cesare C, Isatto EL. Material Waste in Building Industry: Main Causes and Prevention. J Constr Eng Manag 2002;128:316–25. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2002)128:4(316).
[6]     Demir I, Orhan M. Reuse of waste bricks in the production line. Build Environ 2003;38:1451–5. doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(03)00140-9.
[7]     Lennon M. Recycling Construction and Demolition Wastes. The Institution Recycling Network, A Guide for Architects and Contractors 2005.
[8]     Etxeberria M, Marí AR, Vázquez E. Recycled aggregate concrete as structural material. Mater Struct 2007;40:529–41. doi:10.1617/s11527-006-9161-5.
[9]     Canonico DA, Griess JC, Robinson GC. Final report on PCRV thermal cylinder axial tendon failures. Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn.(USA); 1976.
[10]   Devenny A, Khalaf FM. Use of crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete. Mason Int 1999;12:81–4.
[11]   Hansen TC. Report of Technical Committee 37-DRC, Demolition and Reuse of Concrete. RILEM: E&FN Spon, London. CRC Press; 1992.
[12]   London E, Spoon FN. Recycling of demolished concrete and masonry, T. C. Hansen, Editor. RILEM 1992.
[13]   Venta GJ, Eng P. Life cycle analysis of brick and mortar products. Athena [TM] Sustainable Materials Institute; 1998.
[14]   Lalchandani D, Maithel S. Towards Cleaner Brick Kilns in India: A Win‐Win Approach Based on Zigzag Firing Technology. Acad Dev Commun Serv Chennai, India 2013.
[15]   Agarwal M, Krishan A. Reusability of construction and demolition waste in brick. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 2017;4:147 – 151.
[16]   Dey G. Use of Brick Aggregate in Standard Concrete and Its Performance in Elevated Temperature. Int J Eng Technol 2013:523–6. doi:10.7763/IJET.2013.V5.610.
[17]   Dwivedi K. Study on properties of concrete using overburnt brick chips and demolished concrete waste as partial replacement of coarse aggregate. IOSR J Mech Civ Eng 2017;14:52–6.
[18]   Subramani T, Kumaran S. Experimental investigation of using concrete waste and brick waste as a coarse aggregate. Int J Appl or Innov Eng Manag 2015;4:294–303.
[19]   Veerakumar R, Saravanakumar R. A detailed study on partial replacement of fine aggregate with brick debris n.d.
[20]   Hiremath M, Sanjay S. Replacement of coarse aggregate by demolished Brick waste in concrete. Int J Sci Technol Eng 2017;4:31–6.
[21]   Yiosese AO, Ayoola AR, Ugonna MC, Adewale AK. Partial replacement of coarse aggregate with broken ceramic tiles in concrete production. Int J Sci Eng Res 2018;9:81–7.
[22]   Iffat S. Relation between density and compressive strength of hardened concrete. Concr Res Lett 2015;6:182–9.
[23]   Tavakoli D, Heidari A, Pilehrood SH. Properties of Concrete made with Waste Clay Brick as Sand Incorporating Nano SiO^ sub 2^. Indian J Sci Technol 2014;7:1899.
[24]   Adamson M, Razmjoo A, Poursaee A. Durability of concrete incorporating crushed brick as coarse aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2015;94:426–32. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.056.
[25]   Mobili A, Giosuè C, Corinaldesi V, Tittarelli F. Bricks and Concrete Wastes as Coarse and Fine Aggregates in Sustainable Mortars. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2018;2018:1–11. doi:10.1155/2018/8676708.
[26]   Dong JF, Wang QY, Guan ZW. Material properties of basalt fibre reinforced concrete made with recycled earthquake waste. Constr Build Mater 2017;130:241–51. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.08.118.
[27]   Farhangi V, Karakouzian M. Effect of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tubes Filled with Recycled Materials and Concrete on Structural Capacity of Pile Foundations. Appl Sci 2020;10:1554. doi:10.3390/app10051554.
[28]   10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.11.127 n.d.
[29]   Dang J, Zhao J, Pang SD, Zhao S. Durability and microstructural properties of concrete with recycled brick as fine aggregates. Constr Build Mater 2020;262:120032. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120032.
[30]   Jiang T, Wang XM, Zhang WP, Chen GM, Lin ZH. Behavior of FRP-Confined Recycled Brick Aggregate Concrete under Monotonic Compression. J Compos Constr 2020;24:04020067. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0001080.
[31]   Liu Q, Singh A, Xiao J, Li B, Tam VW. Workability and mechanical properties of mortar containing recycled sand from aerated concrete blocks and sintered clay bricks. Resour Conserv Recycl 2020;157:104728. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104728.
[32]   Zhang S, He P, Niu L. Mechanical properties and permeability of fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled aggregate made from waste clay brick. J Clean Prod 2020;268:121690. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121690.
[33]   Chen J, Zhang S, Wang Y, Geng Y. Axial compressive behavior of recycled concrete filled steel tubular stub columns with the inclusion of crushed brick. Structures 2020;26:271–83. doi:10.1016/j.istruc.2020.03.045.
[34]   Cai X, Wu K, Huang W, Yu J, Yu H. Application of recycled concrete aggregates and crushed bricks on permeable concrete road base. Road Mater Pavement Des 2020:1–16. doi:10.1080/14680629.2020.1742193.
[35]   Ouda AS, Gharieb M. Development the properties of brick geopolymer pastes using concrete waste incorporating dolomite aggregate. J Build Eng 2020;27:100919. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100919.
[36]   BS EN 197-1:2000 – Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. British standard institution, London n.d.
[37]   BS EN 993-1:1997 – Testing aggregates. Method of particle size distribution. Sieve tests. n.d.
[38]   BS EN 1097-3:1998, Testing aggregates. Method for determination of density n.d.
[39]   Bowles LE. Foundation analysis and design, 4th Edition. McGraw-hill; 1997.
[40]   Shetty M. Concrete technology: theory and practice. S. Chad & Company Ltd, India; 2013.
[41]   Bhattacharjee E, Nag D, Sarkar PP, Haldar L. An experimental investigation of properties of crushed over burnt brick aggregate concrete. Int J Eng Res Technol 2011;4:21–30.
[42]   Duggal SK. Building Materials New Age International Publishers, New-Delhi, India 2012:181 – 207.
[43]   Mamlouk MS, Zaniewski JP. Materials for civil and construction engineers. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ; 2006.
[44]   Neville AM, Brooks JJ. Concrete technology, Second Edition. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, India; 1987.
[45]   Neville AM. Properties of concrete (3rd Edition). London: The English Language Book Society and Pitman Publishing 1981.
[46]   BS 882:1992 – Specification for aggregate from natural sources for concrete n.d.
[47]   BS 5328-2 (1990). Specification for the procedures to be used in sampling, testing and assessing compliance of concrete n.d.
[48]   BS 812-112:1990 – Testing concrete methods of determination of Aggregate Impact Value. n.d.
[49]   BS 812-110:1992 – Testing concrete methods of determination of Aggregate Crushing Value. n.d.
[50]   ACI 116R : 2000 (R2005) – Cement and Concrete Terminology n.d.
[51]   Neville AM. Properties of Concrete (4th Edition). Pearson Education Limited, Delhi 1995.
[52]   Neville AM. Properties of concrete (4th Edition). Second India Reprint: Pearson Education, India 2003:276–7.
[53]   Bricks S. Clay bricks specification, Shawberick, New York 2000.
[54]   Rashid MA, Salam MA, Shill SK, Hasan MK. Effect of replacing natural coarse aggregate by brick aggregate on the properties of concrete. DUET J 2012;1:17–22.
[55]   Neville AM. Properties of concrete (5th Edition). Malaysia 1996.
[56]   Akhtaruzzaman AA, Hasnat A. Properties of concrete using crushed brick as aggregate. Concr Int 1983;5:58–63.
[57]   de Brito J, Pereira AS, Correia JR. Mechanical behaviour of non-structural concrete made with recycled ceramic aggregates. Cem Concr Compos 2005;27:429–33. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.07.005.
[58]   Fakhar MZ. Comparative Study on Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Brick Aggregates as Partial Replacement of Stone Aggregates n.d.
[59]   BS 8110-1:1997 – Structural use of Concrete. Code of practice for design and construction. n.d.